Muddiest Point

After a lecture, learners are asked to concisely record what is still unclear on a piece of paper. The facilitator collects all the muddiest points and addresses the concerns in the following class by identifying patterns/themes in the responses. Addressing the muddiest points may include a summary of the class’s responses, a discussion, or an activity that helps clarify points of confusion.

Individual/Group Activity Group & Individually
Class SizeSmall (<25), Medium (25-50), & Large (51-200)
Bloom’s Taxonomy LevelRemember
Development InitialAbsolute Knowing
Minimum Time to Facilitate< 15 Minutes
Minimum Time to Debrief< 5 Minutes

Bullock, K. C., Gibson, C., Howard, M., Liu, J., Tatachar, A., & Yuet, W. C. (2018). Use of the Muddiest Point Technique as an exam review in an integrated pharmacotherapy course. Currents in pharmacy teaching and learning, 10(9), 1295-1302:

Ankeny, C. J., & Krause, S. J. (2014, June). Flipped biomedical engineering classroom using pencasts and muddiest point web-enabled tools. In 2014 ASEE Annual Conference & Exposition (pp. 24-614):

Mackos, A. R., Casler, K., Tornwall, J., & O’Brien, T. (2023). Revitalizing the Muddiest Point for Formative Assessment and Student Engagement in a Large Class. Nurse Educator, 48(2), 88-91: